This is default featured slide 1 title

NIMS(Nepal Index Of Medical Specialities) has been design to provide information on drugs that are marketed in Nepal by Pharma company from around the world .

NIMS DRUGS DIRECTORY

NIMS(Nepal Index Of Medical Specialities) has been design to provide information on drugs that are marketed in Nepal by Pharma company from around the world .

NIMS DRUGS DIRECTORY

NIMS(Nepal Index Of Medical Specialities) has been design to provide information on drugs that are marketed in Nepal by Pharma company from around the world .

NIMS DRUGS DIRECTORY

NIMS(Nepal Index Of Medical Specialities) has been design to provide information on drugs that are marketed in Nepal by Pharma company from around the world .

NIMS DRUGS DIRECTORY

NIMS(Nepal Index Of Medical Specialities) has been design to provide information on drugs that are marketed in Nepal by Pharma company from around the world .

Sunday, May 31, 2015

Choose the antimicrobial which acts by interfering with DNA function in the bacteria:

Choose the antimicrobial which acts by interfering with DNA function in the bacteria:
A. Chloramphenicol
B. Ciprofloxacin
C. Streptomycin
D. Vancomycin


ans is B . ciprofloxacin

Ciprofloxacin is a broad-spectrum antibiotic active against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. It functions by inhibiting DNA gyrase, a type II topoisomerase, and topoisomerase IV,enzymes necessary to separate bacterial DNA, thereby inhibiting cell division.

Ciprofloxacin (INN) is an antibiotic that can treat a number of bacterial infections. It is a second-generation fluoroquinolone.Its spectrum of activity includes most strains of bacterial pathogens responsible for respiratory, urinary tract, gastrointestinal, and abdominal infections, including Gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Legionella pneumophila, Moraxella catarrhalis, Proteus mirabilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa), and Gram-positive (methicillin-sensitive, but not methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterococcus faecalis, and Streptococcus pyogenes) bacterial pathogens. Ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are valued for this broad spectrum of activity, excellent tissue penetration, and for their availability in both oral and intravenous formulations.
Ciprofloxacin is used alone or in combination with other antibacterial drugs in the empiric treatment of infections for which the bacterial pathogen has not been identified, including urinary tract infectionsand abdominal infections among others. It can also treat infections caused by specific pathogens known to be sensitive.
Ciprofloxacin is the most widely used of the second-generation quinolone antibiotics that came into clinical use in the late 1980s and early 1990s.In 2010, over 20 million outpatient prescriptions were written for ciprofloxacin, making it the 35th-most commonly prescribed drug, and the 5th-most commonly prescribed antibacterial, in the US.Ciprofloxacin was discovered and developed by Bayer A.G. and subsequently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 1987. Ciprofloxacin has 12 FDA-approved human uses and other veterinary uses, but it is often used for unapproved uses (off-label).

Overall, the safety of ciprofloxacin and other fluoroquinolones appears to be similar to that of other antibiotics, but serious side effects occur on occasion. Some disagreement in the literature exists regarding whether fluoroquinolones produce serious adverse events at a higher rate than other broad-spectrum antibiotics.The U.S. FDA-approved label for ciprofloxacin includes a "black box" warning of increased risk of tendon damage and/or rupture and for exacerbation of muscle weakness in patients with the neurological disorder myasthenia gravis Other side effects include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and dizziness.

Tuesday, May 26, 2015

Maximum water reabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract occurs in:

QUESTION : SELECT ONE APPROPRIATE ANSWER:

1.Maximum water reabsorption in the gastrointestinal tract occurs in:


A. Stomach
B. Jejunum
C. Ileum
D. Colon

Ans:

B. Jejunum


The small intestine must absorb massive quantities of water. A normal person or animal of similar size takes in roughly 1 to 2 liters of dietary fluid every day. On top of that, another 6 to 7 liters of fluid is received by the small intestine daily as secretions from salivary glands, stomach, pancreas, liver and the small intestine itself.
By the time the ingesta enters the large intestine, approximately 80% of this fluid has been absorbed. Net movement of water across cell membranes always occurs by osmosis, and the fundamental concept needed to understand absorption in the small gut is that there is a tight coupling between water and solute absorption. Another way of saying this is that absorption of water is absolutely dependent on absorption of solutes, particularly sodium:
  • Sodium is absorbed into the cell by several mechanisms, but chief among them is by cotransport with glucose and amino acids - this means that efficient sodium absorption is dependent on absorption of these organic solutes.
  • Absorbed sodium is rapidly exported from the cell via sodium pumps - when a lot of sodium is entering the cell, a lot of sodium is pumped out of the cell, which establishes a high osmolarity in the small intercellular spaces between adjacent enterocytes.
  • Water diffuses in response to the osmotic gradient established by sodium - in this case into the intercellular space. It seems that the bulk of the water absorption is transcellular, but some also diffuses through the tight junctions.
  • Water, as well as sodium, then diffuses into capillary blood within the villus.